Often called the first female judge in Islam, Thuml lived during the 10th century. Her exact date of birth is unkown. Although said to be the first female judge, this is unverified but we know at least this is the first female judge on which there is a written record.
She was called Qharmana due to her being the head of the women’s quarters in the palace, before becoming a judge.
It was during the age of the Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtadir; his mother was appointed Queen. She was highly impressed by Thuml’s intelligence and knowledge of the sciences of religion and so ordered her to sit in what was called the "House of grievances " and appointed her head judge or chief of justice.
At first Thuml found intense resentment against her appointment but with the help of a fellow judge Abu al-Hasan Ibn Aloshnani and after making intelligent and fair judgments she was able to overcome the refusal of people and gain their confidence. The people began to trust her when they saw her ability to judge amongst them and they began to come in droves to receive a Just judgment from Thuml.
She oversaw the house of grievances on Friday. As well as all ruling from the House of Grievence has to be signed by her, or else they would not be implemented. She presided over a large council of judges and scholars and dignitaries.
Some historians and scholars who witnessed the times of Thuml in Baghdad, wrote that she was a great judge , and that the objections of the people quickly turned to love because of the reforms she carried out .
It is common to see that some historians described her as “harsh” and strange. This was more due to her lack of trepidation to implement the full extent of the law
She resigned in the year 922 AD and died in 928 AD